Who and What We Are

Xerography Debt is a review zine for zine readers by zine writers (and readers). It is a hybrid of review zine and personal zine (the ancestor to many blogs). The paper version has been around since 1999. This blog thing is are attempt to bridge the gap between Web 2.0 and Paper 1.0. Print is not dead, but it is becoming more pixelated.

Monday, November 12, 2012

From A.j. Michel: SP 22: Six Categories -- Call for Entries

From A.j. Michel: SP 22: Six Categories -- Call for Entries
In the beginning of the novel Microserfs*, Douglas Coupland has each of his characters list their dream Jeopardy! categories, fields of expertise such as “Career anxieties”, “Cats”, “Psychotic loser friends”, and “Macintosh products”. I can’t remember much else from this nearly twenty-year old novel, but these character “introductions” remain stuck in a shadowy corner of my memory. I’ve mentally made lists of my ideal Jeopardy! boards, with categories like “The Simpsons, Seasons 1 to 8” and “Postage” and “Job Dissatisfaction”.
It’s your turn to list your six ideal Jeopardy! categories that showcase your unique knowledge, quirks, neuroses, talents, habits, whatever.
Email the following to syndprod@gmail.com with the words Six Categories in the subject line.
1. Your six ideal Jeopardy! categories. These should be single words, short phrases, or very short sentences. Brevity is the soul of wit and all that. (Please nothing racist, sexist, overtly sexual, distasteful, etc. If you want to list off sexual things you’re really good at, go fill out an OK Cupid dating profile.)
2. For the credit line, your name and electronic contact information as you want it to appear. For example: Jane Doe - www.janedoe.com or John Doe - john@johndoe.com.
Deadline is DECEMBER 12, 2012. This is a firm deadline. Entries will be printed in the order they are received. You’ll receive a copy of the finished zine as compensation.
Disclaimer: This zine has absolutely no connection to Douglas Coupland, Microserfs, or the television program Jeopardy!
*A long excerpt of what became the novel Microserfs is available here:www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.01/microserfs.html

Friday, September 14, 2012


review from Anne: AWKWARD POSTURE #9
16 pages, 6.5 x 6 inches, $2 (everywhere)
trades yes.

Matt Young

AWKWARD POSTURE is a project of five journal comics a week for a year that ends up getting collected into 12 minicomics. It's book 9 of 12 in the series and details last year's trip to the Small Press Expo. Full disclosure -- I was in on this trip (which is always a blast) and so have a fondness for the book. Basically Matt's a cartoonist who survived comics college in White River Junction and decided to do a series of "weekdaily" journal comics. There's a cat and some comics and, overall, it's an interesting project. I love autobio work and this one's a fun title. Includes irthday cats, papercutter accidents, travel, flippin' the bird with a broken finger, bad birthday hats, and mayhem on the road! Take that, Small Press Expo! See you next year!

Monday, August 27, 2012

Canister X Comics

review from Anne: CANISTER X COMIX (No. 1--October 2011, 2--January 2012, and 3--April 2012)

20 pages (#2 is 24 pages), 5.5 x 8.5 $3 US, $3 Can/Mex, $4 world, trades maybe
A.P Fuchs

Quarterly perzine/comic that's mostly autobio (though issue #3 is fiction and uses words with photographs rather than the drawing we see in #1 and #2). No. 2 is a 24-hour comic (and the back cover copy is pretty funny: "Inside this issue: a sleepless night, a bizarre superhero's origin, kids and bad language, expensive cupcakes,...and more!) with a wild array of various topics (there's a piece on "navel gazing" that's both gross and terribly funny) and it turns out the cupcake's a muffin (I'm not going to ruin the surprise on that one). But of all the issues I really found myself getting into the first one the most -- it's an origin story of how the author came to be where he is (writing and publishing; check out the website), but it's told in this really interesting, straightforward way that just pulls you in. I like autobio work generally, but I really kind of related to someone who was just putting it out there and explaining why he was doing what he was doing. It's worth checking out for sure.


review from Anne: BROOKLYN #77

24 pages, 5.5 x 8.5 $10 for a 4 issue subscription
Fred Argoff
Penthouse L
1170 Ocean Parkway
Brooklyn NY 11230

More Brooklyn reviews! Say it with me, people: “The name of this zine is BROOKLYN and that's also what the zine is about, Fred's beloved borough of Brooklyn." History, photography, you name it and it’s in here…provided it’s got something to do with Fred’s favorite borough. I honestly kind of love that I always end up with an issue of BROOKLYN in my mailbox; this particular one's theme is Bushwick.

I actually really like the photo on the cover of #77 -- it's a long aerial shot of a typical Brooklyn street, but I really just like the composition of it with the street dissolving off on the horizon. #77's a little different than other issues, because it's themed -- and it's full of interesting photographs and Brooklyn history. What I love about this title is that it always reminds me of the borough's rich and storied history; it's a history tour, but with current photographs; it's a fun, interesting read. Get yourself some Brooklyn already (and be sure to check out the Brooklyn-themed zazzle.com stamps Fred's been using for postage lately).

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Call for submissions for Blackguard #5 from Stratu

I can announce the theme for Blackguard #5 - it's gonna be the SCIENCE issue!

And I want you to be in there, if you can get your pens, inks and test
tubes in order, that is.

Or if you know somebody who would like to be a part of it please go
ahead and forward this to them.

I want one-two page strips only. Blind me with science, baby!

Deadline is October 31, 2012.

Thanks to Shaun Craike for coming up with the theme. Many other good
ones, but Science really hit me in the guts as The One.

Anything else you need to know? Wanna do a colour page strip? Email
me. I'm pretty sure I got the cover sorted, but that means three other
colour pages ... for strips, preferably.

Now, to the laboratory!
Perfect [Lab] Leader Stratu

PO Box 35
Marrickville NSW 2204

Thursday, June 14, 2012

Fuzz Society #1 and #2 and Average Jill #1

The short version is that Fuzz Society #1 and #2 are collections of a webcomic and Average Jill is a 24-hour comic. The longer version's a little cuter; Fuzz Society basically follows Lyra Ladybug as she flies far from home and makes some new friends, including an interesting cast of other characters (Tex, a turtle, and Phyllis, a lovebird, among a few others). Roxanne writes in the afterword of the first issue that she and her husband developed the concept together and these first two books are a way for her to introduce Lyra and the rest of the cast of characters. It so far looks like it's something that all ages could read, though Lyra's a little bit boy-crazy (well, maybe not boy, exactly --  you'll have to read it to find out, but the cover design for the second issue reads "Love is in the air...").

Average Jill #1 is a 24-hour comic summed up well byt he back cover: "Meet Jill. She may not be the smartest or hottest girl on the block, but she's got charm. And will. Get your laughs on in 24 one-shot panels, created as part of a 24-hour comic, which focus on such topics as dating, relationships, parenting, and work life, and maybe you'll see a part of yourself in her. Just maybe." Her titles for these one-panel comics are pretty funny, and if you're a parent, you'll probably really get a kick out of the ones about parenting--they're among the best in the book.

Fuzz Society #1 and #2 (Oct 2010 and Aug 2011)
Average Jill #1 (2011)
Roxanne Fuchs
$3 US / $3 Can/Mex / $4 World
trades: maybe
Half-legal (9 inches tall x 6 inches wide)
20 pages, 28 pages, and 24 pages, full color covers, professionally printed

review from Anne: BROOKLYN #76

24 pages, 5.5 x 8.5 $10 for a 4 issue subscription
Fred Argoff
Penthouse L
1170 Ocean Parkway
Brooklyn NY 11230

More Brooklyn reviews! Say it with me, people: “The name of this zine is BROOKLYN and that's also what the zine is about, Fred's beloved borough of Brooklyn." History, photography, you name it and it’s in here…provided it’s got something to do with Fred’s favorite borough. #76 has a little bit of everything--photographs, old advertisements relating to Brooklyn, an interesting history piece ("A Little History Won't Kill You"), a visit to Bergen Beach, as well as the always-appreciated Brooklyn Lexicon & Pronounciation Guide #61 (these always make me laugh like crazy.). Lots of photographs; even those of you who are not familiar with Brooklyn are most likely going to enjoy what you read! Get yourself some BROOKLYN already!

Saturday, April 21, 2012

Xerography Debt #31 Coming June 2012

Available from Microcosm in June 2012

To order a copy of this issue, please send $4 (order online, or send cash, stamps, money order, or check) to Microcosm Publishing

Cover Art by Bojan (Rigor Mortis)

Basic Stuff You Should Know
The Pre-natal Death of the E-book by Joe Biel 
It Means It's Wank by Jeff Somers
Expatriation Daze by Al Burian
Gloomy Sundays by Gianni Simone
At Home in the World of Zines by Carlos Palacios
Index Zine 
Review Form

Anne Thalheimer
Carlos Palacios
D. Blake Werts
Davida Gypsy Breier
Eric Lyden
Fred Argoff
Joe Biel
Julie Dorn
Liz Mason
Maynard Welstand
Stuart Stratu

Monday, April 2, 2012

Posted on behalf of the Salford Zine Library

Hello my name’s Craig and I run the Salford Zine Library.

Many people have different ideas what a zine is. But I will try and sum up what a zine is to me.

A zine is a publication self-made and printed independently by the author. Production methods vary from primitive tools such as photocopiers, pens, paper and the trademark stapler. They can also be professionally printed and made to a very high technical standard and presented as artists’ book.

In the two years since the archive was opened the lively world of zines and our library has continued to flourish and grow. We welcome contributions from everyone. To date we have had nearly 1500 submissions from all over the world. Thank you to those who have donated so far….

Many people who have visited the library and come to past exhibitions have been truly inspired.  They have then gone on to make zines of their own and self-publish work they have wanted to share for a long time.

Here at Salford Zine Library there is no curatorship. We do not wish to be the arbiters of taste. The library is completely inclusive and your contribution is important. We tour the UK visiting schools, universities, public art galleries and book fairs.

Since the exhibition came to a close at Salford Museum and Art Gallery the library has been homeless. I have been desperately seeking a new place for it to reside. Looking for a pleasant and safe environment where people can comfortably read and peruse the archive at their own leisure. After much toing and froing looking for the right spaceI have been offered a permanent room at the Nexus Art Café in the heart of Manchester’s Northern Quarter.

In its new home the archive will be accessible seven days a week from mid May but as you can see the space needs work. With your help and the skills of master craftsman Andy Yates – a man who  says he can drill through anything - we can transform the space into the ideal new home we have long since dreamed of.

Our aim is to raise one thousand pounds by the end of April 2012.

The money raised will go towards the building of shelves, comfy seats to sit down and read, lighting and giving the walls a nice lick of paint.

When the space is clean and safe we can deliver workshops as part of our educational programme and you can read you favourite zines in calm creative comfort.

You can donate in these amounts:

  • For £5! You get an invite to the opening launch night.
  • For £10! You also receive a freshly burnt DVD of the Salford Zine Library film ‘Self-Publishers of the World Take Over.’
  • For £20! Add to it a guided tour of the 3 x 5 metres room with head librarian Craig John Barr.
  • And for £50 and upwards! You get all of the previously mentioned plus you can pick an original piece of artwork listed from my website portfolio. 

Please be generous and give today!

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Posted for The Village Learning Place (donate your zines)

The Village Learning Place is growing our local and small press collection!

Self-published and micro-published works are vital to the library community. They exhibit subject matter often overlooked by larger publishing companies, and provide a platform for local authors to present their works. We are gathering local materials for our catalog including: small-press-issued graphic novels and poetry, self-published cookbooks, zines, memoirs, niche non-fiction, local history, and university press research and literature. It is our goal to use this historic neighborhood venue to showcase the works of local authors and artists.

The Village Learning Place (VLP) is a 501(c)3 nonprofit neighborhood lending library, learning center, computer lab, and community garden in the Charles Village neighborhood of Baltimore City. We serve as an anchoring institution, a symbol of community pride, and a partner in creating a healthy and cohesive community.

Because we’re a non-profit, community-run library, we have the freedom to pursue the works of authors that many libraries cannot. This is just one way the Village Learning Place is a unique and integral facet of the Baltimore community.

If you have any works you would like to donate to the collection, or if you have any information that would be helpful to our cause, please contact:

Library Associate Kendra Eaves at 410-235-2210 or Kendra.eaves@villagelearningplace.orgLibrary Services Coordinator Lesley Noll at 410-235-2210 ext:224 or Lesley.noll@villagelearningplace.org 
Douglas Mowbray, Poetry in the Community, 410-235-5712 dmowbray@twentythreebooks.com

We are planning an unveiling reception for this project for National Library Week in April. More details to come!
Save the Dates!

2012 Cruellest Month Poetry and Performance Festival

Reading of The Star-Spangled Banner as Waverly Main Street
 commemorates The War of 1812 Bicentennial: April 1

4 Nights of Readings at Village Learning Place: April 5, 12, 17, 26

1 Day of Celebration at Waverly Library: April 28

Friday, March 16, 2012

I think I just fell in love a little bit (two reviews from Anne)

Okay, so I was a little giddy to find two zines about biking in my most recent review stack. I have a little Portland bike envy going on, since while I live near some fairly vibrant bike culture, there's less of it in the city where I live. In addition, both of these zines are just beautiful objects; I'm always a fan of something that's both readable and able to be admired -- i.e. it's a pleasure to look at it, the layout is clean and compelling, and they're just really nicely constructed. Both zines fit this description.

Bikenomics is a collection of 10 articles that Elly Blue originally wrote for Grist.org in 2011, but they flow very well together. She's working on "a book exploring the bike economy around the country" that will be released in 2013 and this zine is a particularly good start to thinking about some of those concepts. It's a very eloquent look at things as wide ranging as the simple number crunching that 6 tanks of $4 gas add up pretty quickly so that city bike will pay for itself a lot faster than you think to recognizing that though biking can be easy for most, it isn't for all. It's a realistic, smart consideration of a fascinating topic, and the zine is absolutely worth reading (even if you don't ride; maybe especially if you don't yet ride!).

But I really kind of fell in love with Our Bodies, Our Bikes. I didn't really get into biking as an adult until I had a stretch of time where I didn't have a car and had to get back and forth to work (and here there are a lot of bike trails that run parallel to the major roadways). I'm not yet an all-weather rider (I know some folks in Massachusetts are, but I'm not there yet), but then I got into distance riding. Long story short: I kinda fell in love with my bike and with riding. I loved the idea that I could get myself around without relying on a car, and reading about other women doing awesome stuff on bikes (riding to the birthing center while riding out contractions? Holy crap, that's awesome!) just really made me want to get on my bike and go for a ride. There's a number of different stories in this collection, including one excellent piece about what cycling can do to your body (and how that helped one author learn to love her butt), stretches that incorporate your bike, and a super-smart piece for lady bikers about biking and your lady parts. (Seriously! It's an important subject and people don't talk about it enough!)

It's also got the most adorable back cover photo, of a lady ridin' along on her bike, overjoyed to be out in the sun, wearing socks and shoes and not very much else.

You gotta read this zine. It's really awesome. (You can order it online at takingthelane.com)

Our Bodies, Our Bikes
Taking the Lane Volume 5 (Dec 2011)
by Elly Blue
$3 US / ? Can/Mex / ? World
trades: not sure, contact & ask
4.25 inches wide x 6.5 inches wide)
42 pages

Bikenomics: How Bicycling Will Save The Economy (If We Let It) (Sept 2011, 2nd printing)
by Elly Blue
$5 US / ? Can/Mex / ? World
trades: not sure
4.25 wide x 7.25 tall
40 pages

both available from
Elly Blue
PO Box 14332
Portland, OR 97293

Monday, March 5, 2012

Three #2

I raved about the last issue of THREE in a previous post, so I was really pleased to see that THREE #2 is continuing solid, compelling work by queer creators. That's a tall order, considering the amount of praise the title has received as well as Ignatz nominations for one of the previous issue's pieces.) Again, the concept: THREE is an anthology by queer comic artists edited by Rob Kirby (you know him from BOY TROUBLE, CURBSIDE, and the particularly excellent STRANGE-LOOKING EXILE) in which each issue contains 3 new stories by three different creators or groups of creators.

It's an excellent production and one of my current favorite titles. This issue features three really different stories. The first, "Dragon" (written by Sina Evil with art by Jon Macy) is beautiful, sexy, playful, complicated, and a little heartbreaking: it's the story of two comics artists who meet for dinner and something a bit more beyond that. It's a story about sex and desire, but also about self-discovery. Evil's storytelling pace is superb (it's his first time writing a comic and not drawing it himself) and Macy's art is by turns smouldering and playful. It's a standout piece and a beautifully done collaboration.

The next piece is a playful cartoon jam by Jennifer Camper and Michael Fahy called "Help Wanted" that's a lot of fun. I can't tell you too much abnout the story without giving away plot twists, but it's about Raoul, his boyfriend and boss Leo Rinaldi, Lana (sister of Leo and swanky airplane pilot), the secrets of the samba, and ... well, you've have to read it to find out what happens next. It's a delight that I don't want to ruin for you, but it's one of the most fun cartoon jams I've read in a long time.

The final piece in this issue is "Nothin' But Trouble" by Craig Bostick and David Kelly, which employs very evocative color work. The story initially follows Jimmy, a guitarist and singer, who picks up a fella named Butch, in a love 'em & leave 'em story with a twist. Midway through the story shifts from Jimmy's perspective to Butch's, and the different color backgrounds of the story begin to make sense -- red for Jimmy and aqua for Butch. It's a love story with a couple of twists, but make sure you pay attention to what's playing on the radio in the background on the story's final page.

Overall, THREE is well worth reading for a lot of reasons; the artwork is always excellent, the stories consistently compelling, the series production is one of the most professional I've seen, and the content is diverse, beautiful, and inspiring. I can't wait for THREE #3, which will have work by one of my favorite folks in comics (Carrie McNinch), work from Ed Luce (which looks adorable and full of bear fellows), and a cartoon jam with folks like Diane DiMassa, Howard Cruse, Ellen Forney, and more -- including Rob Kirby himself.

Just order the collection. You're gonna fall in love with it too.

(June 2011)
Rob Kirby
www.robkirbycomics.com (orders via paypal)
$6.25 US / ? Can/Mex / ? World
trades: maybe "for appropriate/similar stuff"
Half-legal (8.5 inches tall x 7 inches wide)
32 all-color pages

Christian* New Age Quarterly: A Bridge Supporting Dialogue

This zine's title is descriptive and accurate. From the statement of purpose on the masthead: "Our intent is to foster communication between Christians and New Agers. To this end, a diversity of viewpoints is featured. Publication does not imply the publisher concurs with the content." These issues feature a letters column with perspectives and comments from readers, articles on such things as shamanism and spirituality, and includes reference materials, advertisements, and other reading including book reviews. Informative and speculative. If you're interested in these subjects, this zine is a good resource for you and will be thought-provoking. Professionally laid-out, cleanly organized, includes color pages on the inside.

Christian* New Age Quarterly: A Bridge Supporting Dialogue
Vol. 20, #1 (Summer 2011), Vol. 20, #1+ (Autumn 2011), and Vol 20, #2 (Winter 2011)
PO Box 276, Clifton, NJ 07015-0276
website: price: $3.50US/ $ 5 Can/Mex / $5 World for sample issue. Subscriptions (4 issues plus supplements) $12.50 US/$18.50 everywhere else.
trades: ? (contact and ask, I guess?)
size: 8.5 tall x 7 wide
page count: 24, 16, 24


More Brooklyn reviews! Say it with me, people: “The name of this zine is BROOKLYN and that's also what the zine is about, Fred's beloved borough of Brooklyn." History, photography, you name it and it’s in here…provided it’s got something to do with Fred’s favorite borough.

#75 is a "special issue" -- to mark the 75th issue, Fred sorted through his "collection of zine stuff" that was planned for (but didn't make it into) earlier issues and put together kind of a "hodgepodge" with all the usual suspects (and of course all about Brooklyn): photographs, the Lexicon & Pronounciation Guide (including "ida know" and "yizzl" -- don't know these? Get yourself some BROOKLYN already!), the Brooklyn version of Goldilocks and the Three Bears, a neighborhood tour -- all in all, always an interesting read!

PS: The cover is very funny and probably not something you want to read at your desk at work: it's six middle fingers held high and proud by four people...and one primate.

24 pages, 5.5 x 8.5 $10 for a 4 issue subscription
Fred Argoff
Penthouse L
1170 Ocean Parkway
Brooklyn NY 11230

Thursday, February 9, 2012


Because revenge is a dish best served as seconds.

Last year, after getting tired of hearing folks glibly forecasting the death of print, a number of people in the self-publishing/small press/zines/comics world teamed up to declare 2011 The Revenge Of Print.

Organizers/sponsors included:
Stores: Atomic Books (Baltimore),  Quimby's (Chicago), Reading Frenzy (Portland), Xerography Debt, and Zine World, Razorcake, Maximum Rocknroll, Broken Pencil, and a number of zine libraries and distros around the world.

The challenge was issued - everyone who has ever made a zine, a comic, a mini-comic, handmade booklet, pamphlet or publication - or anyone who still was making one - or even anyone who as ever thought of making one - do it. Make at least one more publication in 2011.

And the results are in. Quimby's and Atomic Books tallied up nearly 2000 titles published as part of, in response to, or in the spirit of Revenge of Print. How's that for revenge?

"Books are over." "Magazines are over." "Comix are over." "Zines are over." "Newspapers are over." Bah! Don't think so. We're over things being over.

And that includes revenge.

So Revenge of Print organizers and members are declaring 2012 The Revenge of Revenge of Print.

Once again we are encouraging/challenging/asking - everyone who ever made (or wants to make) a zine, a mini-comic, a journal, a chapbook, a magazine or any kind of self-made publication of any kind vow that in 2012, they'll make another issue/title/publication.

Yes, we're still making a point. And we're using the very tools credited with the demise of print to do so - the internet!

Join the Facebook group:

And who is this "we" that's issued this challenge to self-publishers past, present, and future?

"We" are, to date,
Atomic Books - www.atomicbooks.com
Quimby's - www.quimbys.com
Reading Frenzy - www.readingfrenzy.com
and more TBA.

We'll be using the Facebook group as an organizing resource to provide addresses to publications where participants can send copies of their projects for review, and we'll also be listing addresses to real stores who will consign those very same titles so people can actually get copies the old fashioned way, by walking into a store.

Our list of participants has been growing rapidly. The Facebook group already has nearly 1,100 self-publishers. We're hoping you will team-up with us by helping to spread the word!

"Print lives if you want it."
Logos above are available for use and should be credited to Bojan. 

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Xerography Debt #30 now available!

Now Available from Microcosm

To order a copy of this issue, please send $4 (order online, or send cash, stamps, money order, or check + s/h) to Microcosm Publishing

Cover Art by Bojan (Rigor Mortis)

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Basic Stuff You Should Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Why I Publish by DJ Frederick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Death of the Weblog by Joe Biel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Expatriation Daze by Al Burian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
It Means It's Wank by Jeff Somers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Gloomy Sundays by Gianni Simone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Revenge of Print Honor Roll . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 62
Zine Review Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Artist's Statement About The Cover by Bojan . . . . . . 63

Anne Thalheimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-17
D. Blake Werts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-23
Davida Gypsy Breier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-26
Eric Lyden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26-28
Fred Argoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-30
Gavin J. Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30-32
Joe Biel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32-37
Julie Dorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37-39
Kathy Moseley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39-41
Liz Mason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41-46
Matt Fagan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46-48
Maynard Welstand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48-49
Stuart Stratu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49-61